Archive for the ‘Powershell’ Category

Inveigh is a PowerShell LLMNR/mDNS/NBNS spoofer and man-in-the-middle tool designed to assist penetration testers/red teamers that find themselves limited to a Windows system.

Included In

At its core, Inveigh is a .NET packet sniffer that listens for and responds to LLMNR/mDNS/NBNS requests while also capturing incoming NTLMv1/NTLMv2 authentication attempts over the Windows SMB service. The primary advantage of this packet sniffing method on Windows is that port conflicts with default running services are avoided. Inveigh also contains HTTP/HTTPS/Proxy listeners for capturing incoming authentication requests and performing attacks. Inveigh relies on creating multiple runspaces to load the sniffer, listeners, and control functions within a single shell and PowerShell process.

Inveigh running with elevated privilege


Since the .NET packet sniffer requires elevated privilege, Inveigh also contains UDP listener based LLMNR/mDNS/NBNS functions. These listeners can provide the ability to perform spoofing with only unprivileged access. Port conflicts can still be an issue with any running Windows listeners bound to This generally impacts LLMNR. On a system with the Windows LLMNR service running, Inveigh’s unprivileged LLMNR spoofer will not be able to start. Inveigh can usually perform unprivileged NBNS spoofing on systems with the NBNS service already running since it’s often not bound to Most of Inveigh’s other features, with the primary exceptions of the packet sniffer’s SMB capture and HTTPS (due to certificate install privilege requirements), do not require elevated privilege. Note that an enabled local firewall blocking all relevant ports, and without a listed service with open firewall access suitable for migration, can still prevent Inveigh from working with just unprivileged access since privileged access will likely be needed to modify the firewall settings.

By default, Inveigh will attempt to detect the privilege level and load the corresponding functions.

Inveigh running without elevated privilege


Inveigh provides NTLMv1/NTLMv2 HTTP/HTTPS/Proxy to SMB1/SMB2 relay through the Inveigh-Relay module. This module does not require elevated privilege, again with the exception of HTTPS, on the Inveigh host. However, since the module currently only has a PSExec type command execution attack, the relayed challenge/response will need to be from an account that has remote command execution privilege on the target. The Inveigh host itself can be targeted for relay if the goal is local privilege escalation.

Inveigh and Inveigh-Relay running together to execute an Empire 2.0 launcher


Tutorials & Download

PowerMemory is a PowerShell based tool to exploit Windows credentials present in files and memory, it levers Microsoft signed binaries to hack Windows.

PowerMemory - Exploit Windows Credentials In Memory

The method is totally new. It proves that it can be extremely easy to get credentials or any other information from Windows memory without needing to code in C-type languages. In addition, with this method, we can modify the user-land and kernel land behaviour without being caught by antivirus or new defending techniques.

It can actually be done with 4GL language-type or with a scripting language like PowerShell which is installed everywhere.

With that being said, this technique implies that the detection is made hard due to the fact that we can do pretty much what we want by sending and receiving bytes.


  • It’s fully written in PowerShell
  • It can work locally as well as remotely
  • It can get the passwords of virtual machines without having any access to them (works for Hyper-V and VMware)
  • It does not use the operating system .dll to locate credentials address in memory but a Microsoft Signed Debugger
  • PowerMemory maps the keys in the memory and cracks everything by itself (AES, TripleDES, DES-X)
  • It breaks undocumented Microsoft DES-X
  • It works even if you are on a different architecture than the target architecture
  • It leaves no trace in memory
  • It can manipulate memory to fool software and operating system
  • It can write the memory to execute shellcode without making any API call, it only sends bytes to write at specific addresses

You can use the module waiting to be integrated to leave Wonder Land and launch a crafted advanced attack with PowerShell Empire serving as the vector.

You can download PowerMemory here:

Or read more here.